# [ACCEPTED]-Chip Rate, Symbol Rate and Bit Rate-communication

Accepted answer

In digital communications, each *symbol* may encode 11 one or more bits. Very simple modulation 10 schemes, e.g. PSK, just encode one bit per 9 symbol, but more sophisticated schemes can 8 encode several bits per symbol, e.g. QPSK 7 encodes 2 bits per symbol. Hence the symbol rate (symbols 6 per second, aka baud) may be less than bit 5 rate (bits per second).

Chip rate is a term which 4 is specific to spread spectrum communication 3 - a symbol is represented by a number of 2 chips, hence the symbol rate is lower than 1 the chip rate.

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